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"Tephra" and "pyroclastics" are general terms used in reference to particles of igneous rock material of various sizes that have been ejected from volcanoes. The terms "ash" and "dust" communicate a specific size of tephra or pyroclastic particles. At first glance, volcanic ash looks like a soft, harmless powder.
Instead, volcanic ash is a rock material with a hardness of about 5 on the Mohs Hardness Scale.
This gives these tiny particles the ability to damage aircraft windows, be an eye irritant, cause unusual wear on moving parts of equipment that they come in contact with, and cause many other problems discussed below in the "Impact of Volcanic Ash" section.
Volcanic ash particles are very small in size and have a vesicular structure with numerous cavities.
By 1830 Lyell's famous textbook, Principles of Geology, came out. Such was the age of the great creationist geologists!
The principle of faunal succession in the geologic record was established by direct observation as early as 1799 by William Smith.
Science, Grade 5: b7(A, B, D), b8 (B, D), b9 (A, D), b10 (A).
At left, top to bottom: Barchan, Ordovician Marine Environment, and Eurypterid .
Geologists draw on it and other basic principles ( to determine the relative ages of rocks or features such as faults. With a half-life of only 5730 years, carbon-14 dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Hovind is confusing the carbon-14 "clock" with other radiometric "clocks." The only thing in the geologic record which has anything to do with calibrating carbon-14 dating is the coal from the Carboniferous Period.Being ancient, the C-14 content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in "zeroing" laboratory instruments. Hovind would take the trouble to do a little reading from something other than creationist publications he would not make such an outrageous statement.Relative age dating also means paying attention to crosscutting relationships.Say for example that a volcanic dike, or a fault, cuts across several sedimentary layers, or maybe through another volcanic rock type.
Then the paleontologists use the geologists' dates as evidence for the age of the fossils! The relative order of the strata was first determined by the principles of stratification. Beagle, a very strong Bible believer, made it a point to have a copy of Lyell's book for the ship's library.